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  • 05.10.2019
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American Hookup . Lisa Wade, PhD

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Brenda Wilson. Dating is an evolution of the courtship ritual; it became common for young couples — like this pair at a soda fountain in the s — to go out for a movie or a meal as part of a courtship. In general, in the Northeast the median age for marriage for men and women was higher than the national average. Note: Ages represent the average between and of the estimated median age at first marriage. See the full table from the U.

It evolved out of a courtship ritual where young women entertained gentleman callers, usually in the home, under the watchful eye of a chaperon. At the turn of the 20th century, dating caught on among the poor whose homes were not suitable for entertaining, according to Beth Bailey's history of dating, From Front Porch to Back Seat: Courtship in Twentieth-Century America.

Young couples would go out for a movie or dinner. The expectation was that dating, as with courtship, would ultimately lead to a relationship, the capstone of which was marriage.

Precious few of these young women attended college. According to experts, the main reason hooking up is so popular among young people is that in the United States and other Western countries, the age at which people marry for the first time has been steadily creeping up.

As ofin the United States, men married for the first time around the age of 27, and women at about 25 years of age. Bogle says the hookup is what happens when high school seniors and college freshmen suddenly begin to realize they won't be marrying for five, 10 or 15 years.

Dating and a relationship interfered with that. Avery Leake, 25, knows what this is like from the other side. He's in a relationship now, but he says that, in general, most of the young women he used to meet "just wanted sex. They're independent. Leake found that he was also up against women who had as much money as he had, if not more, and he says dating had just become too expensive.

A number of experts accept this relaxed attitude toward sex outside of relationships as a natural consequence of the sexual revolution, women's growing independence and the availability of modern contraceptives.

But Deborah Roffman, who conducts human sexuality workshops for middle- and high-school-age students and their parents, sees that as a distorted view of liberation. I think most people would probably look back and agree that this has been a more traditionally, or at least stereotypically, male model," says Roffman.

She's not convinced that this is a good thing for women, and says that being able to say yes is only one way of looking at freedom. She would feel much better if young men also were developing a greater capacity for intimacy. Being able to engage in intimate relationships where men and women bring all of themselves to the relationship is the cornerstone of family, Roffman says. But young people like Elizabeth Welsh don't see the hookup as an obstacle to future relationships:. If you're honest and open about what you're doing, and willing to commit to a relationship, she says, a hookup and friendship can be fused into a lifetime partnership.

At 25, May Wilkerson would like a relationship, but not a family — not quite yet. She's lived a lot of places: Argentina, Canada and Paris. Wilkerson says she hasn't found much intimacy with the men she's encountered. In New York City, where she moved two years ago, people seem even more emotionally detached, and she thinks it is because so many of the people who come to the big city are focused on success.

Yes, she has been in love, but the guy wasn't quite into it. There was one older guy who was serious; he used to bring her cupcakes. She couldn't work up an interest in him.

American Hookup: Real Facts and True Stories about Hookup Culture - Lisa Wade

That fragmentation of the social world creates a lot of loneliness. Hooking up started before the Internet and social networks, but the technology is extending the lifestyle way beyond the campus.

What Do We Really Know About College Hookup Culture?

Deborah Roffman says no one is offering this generation guidance on how to manage what is essentially a new stage in life. The dilemma for this generation is how to learn about intimacy, she says: "How am I going to have a series of relationships that are going to be healthy for me and others, and going to prepare me" for settling down with one person? Wilkerson doesn't really focus on the concerns of people like Roffman, who fear that hooking up doesn't bode well for the future of young people.

She thinks young people will be able to sort it out for themselves. We know about condoms and sexually transmitted disease. Sex is fun, and a lot of people would argue that it is a physical need. It's a healthy activity. Accessibility links Skip to main content Keyboard shortcuts for audio player. So some racial minorities are embraced by white students more than others. So African-American men and Asian women are usually considered hot and exotic, whereas Asian men and African-American women are considered less so.

So it very much depends kind of on what intersection of race and gender and class, too, that students are sitting in. But overall, we see lower rates of hooking up among racial minorities for both push and pull reasons.

So part of it is they're pushed out because of racism and an erotic hierarchy that privileges whiteness. But they also tend to get pulled out because racial minorities are more likely to be religious. They drink less alcohol. They maybe had to be more squeaky clean to get into college to begin with.

So racial minorities aren't as welcome in hookup culture. And they also don't find it as attractive. WADE: For students who don't identify as heterosexual, and we actually still need to do more research on this, but what it seems to - what seems to be happening is that on small campuses or campuses where people aren't very out, there's not an alternative hookup scene for students who don't identify as heterosexual or bisexual.

And the hookup scene that does exist is hyper-heterosexualized. And in those cases, students participate at their own risk, risking homophobia in either behavior or attitude, or they go off campus. And that is why Grindr hit college campuses way earlier than Tinder did because a lot of students who identified as non-heterosexual were using it to find hookups off campus. Stay with us. I'm Shankar Vedantam. One argument that some make, and this includes feminists on the left and libertarians on the right, is that hookups can be liberating.

In her book, American Hookup: The New Culture of Sex on Campus, first half of the program, we speak with Lisa Wade about hookup culture. This hour, a sociologist dives into so-called “hookup culture” on college campuses, American Hookup: The New Culture of Sex on Campus. In her book "American Hookup: The New Culture of Sex on Campus," Lisa interviews college students and finds that hookup culture has a.

People have a chance to experiment, try new things. They're empowered to discover their preferences. But one of the students we spoke with, Lisa, said that what sometimes starts out sounding like empowerment often becomes something else. You know, it's not a - it wasn't a conversation of, hey, are you willing to try this? Or, hey, you know, I really like it when my partner does this to me.

It would be a little bit more of you're going to do this now. WADE: Yes, I would argue that hookup culture is a rape culture in that it facilitates and excuses behaviors that translate into sexual assault.

I mean, there are enthusiasts who would basically say, you know, we're just exercising, you know, our free choice, we're not constrained by the norms that might have hindered a prior generation.

What's wrong with people experimenting, trying new things, figuring out who they really are? WADE: So part of the reason we see hookup culture on college campuses can be traced back to the sexual revolution and the women's movement.

hookup culture

And the women's movement wanted two things for women, both sexually and otherwise. They wanted women to have the opportunity to do the things that men do and to embody masculine traits and interests. And they wanted everyone to sit up and notice that the things women had been doing all along and the traits and interests that they were believed to have were also valuable.

And we really only got half of that. So the feminists succeeded in convincing America, for the most part, that women should be allowed to do what men do and even have masculine traits. But we never really got around to valuing the things that we define as feminine.

So a young woman who's growing up in America today is going to - she's going to be told by most - not all parents are like this. But most parents are going to encourage their daughters to mix in masculine traits and interests into her personality.

And they're even going to encourage her to do so and perhaps reward her more so when she does that than when she incorporates feminine personality traits.

So we're excited when she likes to play with engineering toys when she's a kid. And we're excited when she chooses sports over cheerleading. And we're excited that she decides to major in physics instead of education. And so women have been getting this message. If they're paying any attention at all it's very clear that, as they say, well-behaved women rarely make history. We reward you, we think it's great when you act like we think a stereotypical man does.

So then when they get to campus, that's what they try to do. And it should surprise none of us that many women on campus decide to approach sexuality the same way they've been rewarded for approaching everything else in their lives, with this idea of the thing to do, the way to be liberated is to act in the way I think a stereotypical man might. VEDANTAM: So, you know, while there are lots of people who do say that hookups can be liberating, one of the young women we spoke with said she actually feels a little trapped.

And I think it feels bad to be used. And that means that you're not hooking up with anybody. VEDANTAM: So there's something heartbreaking about that question, Lisa, because it sounds like what this young woman is saying is that she recognizes that she feels she is being used, but she feels she doesn't have a choice but to be used.

WADE: There are not a lot of good options for women in hookup culture that don't truly enjoy casual sex. And there are some that do. But for the rest of them, they're kind of faced with two options. One is that they don't participate in any sexual activity at all, which also means never getting into any sort of romantic relationship with someone. And the other is passing through this period with a person, the hookup period, with the hopes of coming out the other end as that person's girlfriend.

And there's something different about the double standard on college campuses. It used to be - right? And if women just, quote, unquote, "behaved herself," she could probably stay in the good girl camp, although there's no guarantee. But today, men still have this power to put women into one of these groups. But they put basically all women into the bad girl group, all women they're hooking up with anyway, and then have the power at some point to decide, oh, I've been hooking up with you for a while, now I'm going to decide that I like you.

And now I'm going to treat you with respect and as an equal.

American hookup npr

If a woman wants a relationship where at some point she'll be treated with respect and as an equal, then she has to go through this period where she's not those things. So women's options are either opt out of hookup culture altogether or expose herself to this period where she's treated disrespectfully in the hopes that it translates into something better on the other end.

VEDANTAM: One of the women we talked with actually describes a situation very much like this but also describes a dilemma which she faced, which is even when she likes someone that she's hooked up with, the rules of hookup culture prevent her from telling the other person what she actually wants.

Like, that's not really a thing people talk about versus the, like, the girl who hooks up once and just - and falls in love with you and never leaves you alone.

That's - yeah, that crazy girl. Yeah, that's a thing.

And we so desperately don't want to look like that. So when, you know, you hook up with someone that you actually really liked and you really wanted to be with them and then they don't text you back and so it's over. VEDANTAM: That sounds like a terrible place to be in because you're going through hookup culture to try and find a relationship, but the rules demand that you can't actually ask for one.

WADE: Yeah, yeah. She used the word desperately, which is interesting. I argue in the book that the worst thing a student can be called these days isn't slut and it's not even prude, although that one's a big one, it's desperate. So if the rule is that we're supposed to be having meaningless sex and we're enacting all the things that enable us to keep that illusion going, even when that's not how people actually feel, then it's against the rules for them to say, I actually quite like you.

And this is gendered in that to be disinterested in a hookup partner is less believable than men's, even when they're actually quite good at this. And so men tend to assume that all women are interested in having a relationship with them, whether they are or not, which makes men even more sort of standoffish after a hookup than they otherwise would be 'cause they're assuming the girl just wants to get with them.

And it puts women in the position of trying to prove that they aren't the kind of person who wants to get with the guy she just hooked up with.

And so then she's even more standoffish than she would be otherwise. And because the rule is to care less than the other person, then this creates this downward spiral. But I also get the sense from your book that it might not be serving men very well. WADE: It's not. Laughter Men are human beings and so are women. And they have all kinds of different needs that are not served by hookup culture. Hookup culture serves a stereotypical idea of a man. There are some guys and some women that are like that, that really do thrive in that.

But most students want a different mix of opportunities.

listen to an interview at NPR ? sample an excerpt at TIME or The Guardian ? read reviews and listen to interviews ? view more author essays on hookup culture. For her new book, American Hookup: The New Culture of Sex on Campus, Wade spent 5 years investigating hookup culture on American. Emory University AAUP American Association of University Professors. February 19, ·. NPR: Hookup Culture: The Unspoken Rules Of Sex On College.

And when you ask, actually, men are more likely than women by a few percentage points to say that they wish they could be in a relationship. Having meaningful relationships, having meaningful sexual experiences that are kind - that's something that everyone wants, certainly not just women.

Both men and women are free to have sex, but neither is entirely free to love. That sounds pretty depressing. WADE: Yeah laughter.

Yeah, it's heartbreaking. It was one of the saddest realizations for me when I was writing the book just how powerfully hookup culture has convinced students that they should be embarrassed for having feelings and feel weak for wanting connection. And I - I mean, I'm very, very impressed by the students. They're really smart, they're very insightful, they're earnest, they're wonderful people.

As many delay marriage, they are trading dating for hookups — casual sexual encounters See the full table from the U.S. Census Bureau. Wade spent five years investigating the hookup culture on American college careless, marked by sex with no emotion, according to NPR. Hookup Culture: The Unspoken Rules Of Sex On College Campuses · September 25, • We all know casual sex isn't about love. But what if it's not even.

But the culture is very toxic and it makes it really difficult. This week our unsung hero is Alan Feldenkris. Alan's a regular listener to this podcast and a former member of NPR's marketing team.

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1 thoughts on “American Hookup . Lisa Wade, PhD

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